Climate change, a long-term shift in global and regional climate patterns, affects the balance of ecosystems, causes extreme weather events, and threatens the continued viability of human settlements. It has been conclusively attributed to anthropogenic activity, particularly increased carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations in the atmosphere resulting from the consumption of fossil fuels.
Climate change is characterised by threats to the global environment that, while uncertain, are likely to be severe even if stringent action is taken today to curb emissions. It is intrinsically linked to energy use, which affects all sectors of the economy. Climate change and energy security drive the need to improve energy efficiency as part of a low-carbon economy. Reducing energy use will reduce energy bills, make the energy system more sustainable, and drive down greenhouse gas emissions.